How To Start A Fish Farming Business In Nigeria (make money 2020)


Fish Farming In Nigeria.
Thousands of people have joined the agricultural industry because of it’s lucrative and profitable features.

This is because agriculture plays a very vital role in economic development in Nigeria.

In Nigeria fish farming has non arguably become one of the most lucrative and profitable farming practices. A well managed and invested fish farm can earn you an estimate of 2-3 million within four months.

The high demand of fish in Nigeria has forced entrepreneurs to venture into fish farming business. In Nigeria, fishes like Catfish, Tilapia, mackerel are highly consumed, that’s why these fishes are mainly in every fish farm you will ever visit in Nigeria.

Another good thing about fish farming in Nigeria is because it is officially support by the government that makes this business one of the most successful business in Nigeria.

Because of it’s lucrative nature, fish farming attracts investors into the country. Asides being a profitable business in Nigeria, Fish farming is capital intensive.

You can make a huge profit by going into fish farming business. With proper management skills this business can be runned successfully and watch it grow and expand into multi-level business within a short time.

Why Is Fish Farming So Lucrative And Profitable?
The high demand of fish in Nigeria has made fish farming in Nigeria very lucrative and profitable.

This is because Nigerians consume 3.2 million tonnes of fish annually. This was announced by Director-General, National Biotechnology Development Agency, NABDA, Lucy Ogbadu, at the graduation ceremony of 38 females who received training on fish spawning and breeding in Kano.

With the total annual demand of an estimate of 2.7 million metric tonnes of fish every year.

The high demand and consumption of fish in Nigeria has made fish farming very popular, lucrative and very profitable.

According to Eunice Akponimisingha, she said Catfish farming gives her N200,000 every month while staying at home to operate the business.

She said this in an interview with News Agency of Nigeria (NAN).

This were her words:

“I can’t really tell you the exact money I make in a month, as my profit depends on my harvest. However, through catfish farming, I make a net profit of over N200,000 in a month, which makes me more comfortable than most civil servants.

“Sometimes, the money is more and at other times it is within the range of N200,000. Catfish farming has really made me comfortable because the market is readily available.

“After rearing the fish for six months, I bake the fishes in my oven because most of my customers prefer dried fish to the fresh one.

“Many people have a preference for dried catfish because it can be used for any meal; especially soups,’’ she said.

“I was motivated to go into catfish farming because its start-up capital is not too expensive, while the returns and market are quite huge,’’.

She further said that cat fish was the only Species of fish she breds, because it was easy to get the fingerlings.

This is to give you some proof on how lucrative and profitable fish farming is.

In Nigeria fish farming, catfish are the most reared Species of fish because of it’s high demand in preparing some sweet palatable dishes. Especially cat fish pepper soup, catfish stew, baked catfish and the rest of them.

In Nigeria fish farming, alot of farmers don’t take much interest in Tilapia. They prefer rearing catfish because of it’s high demand in consumption in Nigeria.

But if you should have interest in rearing tilapia fish, then why not give it a try?. Although, catfish is mostly consumed in Nigeria, that does not mean their is no market demand for Tilapia fish. If you happen to choose Tilapia fish over cashfish you won’t loose a thing.

In Nigeria, Tilapia fish farming is booming because of it’s richness in Omega-3 and low in fats. Tilapia fish also contains rich amount of Carbohydrates Phosphorus; Magnesium, Calcium, Dietary Fiber, Sugar Saturated Fats, Vitamins, and Proteins.

While choosing Tilapia fish, the best type and the most popular kind for Nigeria are the Nile Tilapia and Blue Tilapia. These types are native to Nigeria and can be easy to rear.

Another popular fish mostly reared and consumed in Nigeria is mackerel.

Mackerel fish (Titus) has it’s own genuine taste, which makes it one of the most consumed fish in Nigeria.

With height of consumption and demand for the above mentioned fishes in Nigeria will draw you to concluded reasons why rearing either of these fishes will fetch you more and more revenue (money).

What Types Of Fish Species Should I Farm?
In Nigeria fish farming the 3 most reared Species of fish are:
Catfish Farming
Tilapia Farming
Mackerel (Titus) Farming.


Catfish is the most cultivated species of fish in Nigeria fish farming. This is because of it’s high demand and consumption.

Many fish farmers in Nigeria prefers catfish farming because the fingerling are always easy to get, and also because of it’s ease in rearing.

In Nigeria fish farming, Catfish are quite very easy to rear, as it has no complications and difficulties, unlike Mackerel (Titus) species of fish, which needs to be kept in salt water on a moderate level in other to survive.

Cost of each fingerlings of catfish is ?20 – ?30 (between 6 and 10 grams)

Tilapia Fish.

This is the second most popular and consumed fish in Nigeria.

In fish farming business in Nigeria Tilapia has become one of the most reared fish after catfish, because of it’s rapid reproduction rate and and fast growth. This makes it more profitable and very easier to rear.

Tilapia species of fish which lives in a fresh shallow water is very popular in Nigeria’s market, and mostly consumed by Nigerians.

Each fingerlings of Tilapia fish costs ?20 and must not exceed ?30.

Mackerel Fish.
Mackerel a wild caught fish, popularly known as Titus is the most consumed and highly demanded fish in Nigeria, but sadly enough it’s not farmed.

Why is this?

Mackerel is a saltwater fish and if replicated saltwater ponds are maintained, then, farming mackerel will work but it will be too difficult and tasking as salt will be a major expense after feeding.

Salt must be constantly added to the pond and also levels must be maintained, if the salt is too much the fish will die and that will be an expensive mistake and great loss to the farmer.

If you keep in tanks, ensure salt level is assertained. That is why Lobsters and tigger shrimps are also not grown in Nigeria as the right equipments are rear and will be too labour intensive and expensive.

This has forced fish farmers to abandone the Mackerel fish farming business in Nigeria, because of it’s expensive maintenance and management.

Irrespective of it’s expensive maintenance and management mackerel fish is one of the most demanded fish in Nigeria and has the highest rate of Importation.

According to the Nigerian federal department of fisheries, fish import, especially of mackerel, remained an increasing phenomenon. It estimated the import level conservatively at 700,000 metric tons.

As of 2018 Between last January and June, Russia had exported ?3.04 billion of mackerel to Nigeria, while Faroe Island ferried ?2.77 billion; Ice land, ?1.76 billion; Ireland, ?1.76 billion; Netherlands – ?1.31 billion and Mauritania ?1.1 billion.

This is to show you the rate of demand and consumption of mackerel fish in Nigeria.

Thinking of starting up a mackerel fish farming business in Nigeria? Then you have to put some factors into consideration. Although it will be quite expensive but since you have the capital why not give it a try? I bet you, you’ll never regrate it.

The main factor to consider before starting up a mackerel fish farming in Nigeria is ensure that Salt must be constantly added to the pond and also ensure the salt levels is maintained, because if the salt is too much the fishes will die.

Mackerel is a salt water fish, they can’t survive in a fresh water and can’t also survive in a too salty water.

What Are The Benefits Of Fish Farming?

Lucrative and Profitable
Fish farming is Nigeria has turned to be a very lucrative one, because of it’s high consumption and market demand rate.

Fish farmers in Nigeria is so profitable that with a proper investment and management can yeild you x3 of your capital in 3 months.

High Market Demand
One of the primary objectives of fish farmers is to sell their fishes after maturity to the market and make huge profit.

Because of the high market demand of fish in Nigeria, fish farmers make huge amount of income every month.

Fish is a hot commodity in the market and sells faster than any other animal products in the market, and affordably cheaper than meat, making it a better choice in terms of affordability.

A Good source of Protein & Omega-3
Fish is a very rich source of Protein and Omega-3, infact it provides highest source of Protein and it’s a low-fat high-quality protein filled with Omega-3 fatty acids, which is extremely beneficial to a human heart. Omega-3 helps to keep our heart and brain very healthy. Since the human body doesn’t produce Omega-3 fatty acids, the only source through which we can get it is by what we eat, that is where fish comes to our rescue.

Fish also contains vitamins D, and B2 (riboflavin). Fish is also very rich in Calcium and phosphorus and is equally a great source of minerals, such as iron, zinc and iodine.

Matures Quickly.
Fish has the tendency of fast reproduction and fast growth rate. With a good

Proper management and feeding, fish grows faster within some months, which gives fish farmers the advantage of harvesting and selling their fish over a short period of time.

Low Cost Of Production.
Starting up a fish farming business in Nigeria doesn’t require investing huge sum of money (capital), unlike starting up a poultry business which requires huge capital and has more threatening factors associated to it.

One can start up a fish business in Nigeria and grow it to a forever revenue generating business without much capital involved.

Certified & Supported By Government
In Nigeria the government supports and motivates entrepreneurs who venture into agriculture.

There is a campaign in Nigeria. Their primary aim is to motivate and encourage people to invest more in agriculture.

No Environmental Hazard Factors
Fish farm does not cause any environmental hazard. Unlike poultry farming, you can set up the fish farm anywhere, including residential areas. If you have a spacious compound, you can easily set up a small fish farm within your backyard without any regulatory precaution.

What Type Of Fish Feed Should I Use?
Feeding the fish should be the number one priority of the farmer. A well fed fish grows faster and plumpy.

In fish farming business, there are basically two types of fish feeds to use.

Two Types Of Fish Feeds.
there are two types of Fish Feed, they are:

Non-Extruded(sinking) feed.
Extruded Feed (Floating)
The Extruded feed is also referred to as a Floating feed. This type of feed is the early fish feed given to fish in their early stage. This is the best feed for fishes for 7-8 weeks.

It is recommended giving Catfishes floating feed at the early stage, this is because they are more fragile at their early stage. Catfishes are mostly bottom feeder, so by their very nature, they are designed to be eating non-extruded (or sinking) feed.

With floating feed, you can put the feed on the pond gradually and let them eat it; the risk of overfeeding is significantly reduced, thereby ensuring there is no water pollution that can lead to high mortality in the very fragile juveniles.

Non-Extruded Feed (Sinking)
The Non- Extruded feed is also referred to as a Sinking Feed. This type of feed are used in feeding the fish after the 8 week of feeding your fishes with Floating (Extruded) feed.

How Much and How Often Should I Feed My Fish?
How often you should feed your fish depends on the type of fish you have.

Most fish do quite well on one feeding per day. However, some owners prefer to feed their fish twice a day which is still good. Regardless of one or two feedings, the key is to keep each feeding very moderate.

It’s recommended that, newly hatched fry and young fish who are not fully grown require more frequent feedings of special foods designed for fry and fingerlings.

What Happens If You Overfeed Your Fish?

You should really mind how you feed your fishes. Ensure you feed them well. But it’s very important you don’t overfeed them.

This is because, there are some health concerns associated with overfeeding.

Overfeeding is the most common mistake fish owners make. When you give fish too much food, the remnants can clog their filter and break down into toxins and this can be harmful to fishes.

Overfeeding can also stress fish and cause them to suffer from fin rot

Oerfeeding can make some fish species to develop a fatty liver disease (hepatic lipidosis).

As a result of overfeeding some rotten Uneaten food will produce by-products which can be harmful to fish. In the process of that you do overfeed, promptly remove the uneaten food using a siphon or net.


What Type Of Feeding Technique Should I Use?

There are two main categorized ways of feeding a fish they are:

Broadcast Feeding: This is a fish feeding practice that involves going around the ponds by spreading floating feed all over the pond to ensure the circulation of feeds for all the fishes in the pond.

This is the easiest way for fishes if they are in the fingerlings to the post-juvenile stage. This should be done because they just got introduced into a large quantity of water, often from somewhere significantly smaller, and not all the fishes can come to the same spot to eat.

By spreading the fish feed across the pond, this will ensure that they all got fed.

Once your fishes become more mature, often this is in the post-juvenile stage or around 30 – 50 grams, you are advised to instantly switch to spot feeding.

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